Shakespeare has been credited by the Oxford English Dictionary with introducing almost 3,000 words to the English language. Serge. The Gentleman's Magazine became the forum for discussion of the topic. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon" (or simply "the Bard"). [3] There is also a signature on the fly-leaf of a copy of John Florio's translation of the works of Montaigne, which reads "Willm. Over the years there have been a number of variations in the spelling of ‘Shakespeare’, as well as some ridiculous mispells. [36] Kathman argues that this is not the case, and that real names were as likely to be hyphenated as pseudonyms. Although this form had been used occasionally in earlier publications, and other spellings continued to appear, from that point "Shakespeare" gained the dominance which it retains to this day. [18], Although Dowden, the most influential voice in Shakespearean criticism in the last quarter of the 19th century,[29] used the spelling "Shakspere", between 1863 and 1866 the nine-volume The Works of William Shakespeare, edited by William George Clark, John Glover, and William Aldis Wright, all Fellows of Trinity College at the University of Cambridge, had been published by the university. 3. And there are no "Shakespearean" scripts in his handwriting. Answer Save. R.C. [13], The antiquarian Joseph Hunter was the first to publish all known variations of the spelling of the name, which he did in 1845 in his book Illustrations of the Life, Studies, and Writings of Shakespeare. Hunter also argued that the spelling should follow established pronunciation and pointed to the poems, stating that "we possess printed evidence tolerably uniform from the person himself" supporting "Shakespeare". There followed a lengthy correspondence, mainly between John Bruce, who insisted on "Shakspere" because "a man's own mode of spelling his own name ought to be followed" and John William Burgon, who argued that "names are to be spelt as they are spelt in the printed books of the majority of well-educated persons", insisting that this rule authorised the spelling "Shakspeare". Malone declared a preference for the spelling "Shakspeare", using it in his major publications including his 1790 sixteen-volume edition of the complete works of the playwright. [20] The spelling continued to be preferred by many writers during the Victorian era, including the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in The Germ. "[18] Hunter argued that there were probably two pronunciations of the name, a Warwickshire version and a London version, so that "the poet himself might be called by his honest neighbours at Stratford and Shottery, Mr. Shaxper, while his friends in London honoured him, as we know historically they did, with the more stately name of Shakespeare." If so, what were they? He gives an account of what was known at the time of the history of the name of Shakespeare, and lists all its variant forms, including the most idiosyncratic instances such as "Shagsper" and "Saxpere". Although the name is now a household one, ‘Shakespeare’ is not a particularly common or easy to spell name. His major works were published after his death with the new spelling. Botched rhymes, buried puns and a staged accent that sounds more Victorian than Elizabethan. [10], Rarer spellings are "Shak‑speare" on the first quarto of King Lear (1608), and "Shakeſpere", in the first quarto of Love's Labour's Lost (1598). Steevens and Malone had both examined Shakespeare's will, and were convinced that the final signature was spelled this way, which also conformed to the spelling used on Shakespeare's tomb. Not once did he spell it "Shakespeare": Willm Shackper William Shakspear Wm Shakspea William Shackspere Wllm. His name was spelled many, many different ways by his contemporaries, but there were not 27 different spellings by Shakespeare himself. He never called himself “William Shakespeare". The name of Thomas Dekker was written either Dekker, Decker, Deckar, Deckers, Dicker, Dickers, Dyckers, or (interestingly enough) Dickens. The former folded in 1894, but the latter still exists under its original name. For example Edmund Spenser sometimes wrote his name out in full (spelling his first name Edmund or Edmond), but often used the abbreviated forms "Ed: spser" or "Edm: spser". Throughout the play, it is his spells and schemes that drive the overall plot. [6], According to Hunter it was in 1785 that the antiquarian John Pinkerton first revived the spelling "Shakspere" in the belief that this was the correct form as "traced by the poet's own hand" in his signatures. [35] They argue that fictional descriptive names (such as "Master Shoe-tie" and "Sir Luckless Woo-all") were often hyphenated in plays, and pseudonyms such as "Tom Tell-truth" were also sometimes hyphenated. [14], This was followed by 18th-century writers. No writer’s living reputation can compare to that of Shakespeare, whose notable plays include the tragedies Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, King Lear, Macbeth, and Othello. It is used in the cast list of Ben Jonson's Sejanus His Fall, and in six literary allusions published between 1594 and 1623. This spelling was followed by Alexander Pope in his edition of the Works of Shakespear (1725) and George Sewell (The Works of Mr. William Shakespear). [4] Another possibly authentic signature appears on a copy of William Lambarde's Archaionomia (1568). The spelling of William Shakespeare's name has varied over time. Shakspere". [6], Later editions of Shakespeare's works adopted differing spellings, in accordance with fashions of modernised spelling of the day, or, later, of attempts to adopt what was believed to be the most historically accurate version of the name. ~Some names Shakespeare intentionally made, based on their role in the story. [17] Hunter noted that "there has been endless variety in the form in which this name has been written." Asked by Wiki User. The second listconsists of references toShakespeare as a poet and/or playwright u… 1 decade ago. Albert Richard Smith in the satirical magazine The Month claimed that the controversy was finally "set to rest" by the discovery of a manuscript which proved that the spelling changed with the weather, "When the sun shone he made his 'A's, / When wet he took his 'E's. [6] He states that the pseudonym "Martin Marprelate" was sometimes hyphenated, but usually not. In fact he had his ENGLISH BIBLE translated from the Tynsdale German version of the Bible. Shakespeare belonged to early period of mid English. [24][25] The spelling was still common in the early to mid 20th century, for example in Brander Matthews', Shakspere as a Playwright (1913),[26] Alwin Thaler's Shakspere to Sheridan (1922),[27] and T.W. William Hazlitt used it in his book Characters of Shakespear's Plays. Nobody knew how to spell Shakespeare's name correctly. Shakespeare was writing in the era before Samuel Johnson’s dictionary – which started the process of standardising English spelling – so he was rather relaxed about words. This list of Shakespeare plays brings together all 38 plays in alphabetical order. [13] This spelling continued to be popular throughout the later Georgian period. William Shakespeare was an English dramatist, poet, and actor considered by many to be the greatest dramatist of all time. [13], Archival material relating to Shakespeare was first identified by 18th-century scholars, most notably Edmond Malone, who recorded variations in the spelling of the name. However, Prospero’s magic in “The Tempest” is not so simple as an indication of power. [15] The spelling with an "e" at the end persisted, however. Captain:‘S foot, dost take me to be penman? Baldwin's Shakspere's five-act structure (1947). Various other contributors added to the debate. Although the name is now a household one, ‘Shakespeare’ is not a particularly common or easy to spell name. [10], The un-hyphenated spelling "Shakespeare" (or Shakeſpeare, with a long s) appears on 22 of the 58 quartos. Shakespeare spelled his name in different ways, according to remaining records. So, among the most common spellings of Shakespeare over the years were: It is believed that Shakespeare wrote 38 plays in total between 1590 and 1612. [30] With the ubiquity and authority of the Cambridge and Globe editions, backed by the impeccable academic credentials of the Cambridge editors, the spelling of the name as "Shakespeare" soon dominated in publications of works by and about Shakespeare. D'Israeli argued that the printed spellings of the poems would have been chosen by the author. The themes of witchcraft and magic loom large over Shakespeare’s later plays. The firstlist consists of non-literaryreferences to William Shakespeare of Stratford; these include records from Stratford and itsenvirons, as well as various London records, including those relating to his career as an actor andshareholder in the Globe and Blackfriars theatres. Indeed, he could not even decide how to spell his own name. 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