The other articles in this special section expand on key concepts and empirical insights. Follow this author . Warmer oceans will drive more intense storm systems (53) and will extend their latitudinal range (54). . Author contributions: C.M.R., J.L., U.R.S., and J.C.C. Image credit: Carey Lumeng (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI). KL We could theoretically drill at, Natural capital informing decisions: from promise to practice. More generally, the nature of the topological web of trophic and other ecological interactions has always fascinated ecologists (Paine 1980, Pimm 1982, Cohen 1989, Menge 1995). SR The key challenges are to refine EBM further, and to develop a set of principles to guide management and policy. J Email address for updates. JM PJ. For most of human history, these services have been readily available. Pitcher Global ocean primary productivity has decreased by at least 6% since the early 1980s (6). Humans and their societies depend on natural systems for a wide range of services that are essential for their well-being. D The vulnerability of marine ecosystems, the value of the ecosystem services they provide, and the need for different approaches in understanding and managing human activities that affect oceans have received much recent attention. . Some features of the site may not work correctly. Lubchenco However, as noted earlier, evidence that reserves have a beneficial role in coral protection is equivocal. . It is abundantly clear from successive Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports that the impacts of greenhouse gas emissions on the planet are accelerating (1). Die mit, Bestätigte E-Mail-Adresse bei oregonstate.edu -, PM Vitousek, HA Mooney, J Lubchenco, JM Melillo. Degeneracy captures features both of redundancy and of diversity; for example, having multiple different nitrogen fixers in a system means that if conditions change so that one is lost, the other may expand its role and fill the void. wrote the paper. We do not capture any email address. One of the most practical and cost-effective strategies in ocean conservation is the creation of marine protected areas (MPAs). . It is crucial, then, to understand the linkages among these scales, and to incorporate that knowledge into public awareness, management actions, and policy decisions. Whatever definition we choose, it is essential to identify the pattern or activity that is desirable to maintain—we must ask, “The robustness or resilience of what?” We are concerned simultaneously with a wide variety of natural and social systems. If reserves promote coral recovery, they will enhance coastal protection and livelihoods, recreation, and tourism potential and may restore carbon uptake and storage (30, 50). RH Folgende Artikel sind in Scholar zusammengeführt. J Liu, T Dietz, SR Carpenter, C Folke, M Alberti, CL Redman, ... AMBIO: a journal of the human environment 36 (8), 639-649, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 12 (1), 405-437. For example, more diverse reef systems have greater and more stable fish biomass production, and more diverse communities may be less affected by rising and variable temperatures (132). The United Nations's Global Biodiversity Outlook 5 , released this week, concludes that the world has not met ambitious targets set 10 years ago to protect nature. Ward Protection of the services these ecosystems provide must therefore maintain the adaptive capacities of these systems by preserving a balance among heterogeneity, modularity, and redundancy, tightening feedback loops to provide incentives for sound stewardship. This difficulty arises from lack of information about factors such as (i) the influence of inorganic calcium carbonate on the sinking rate of organic fecal carbon; (ii) the rate of separation of inorganic and organic carbon within fecal pellets; (iii) the subsequent rates of carbonate dissolution and consumption/respiration of organic fecal carbon; and (iv) phase heterogeneity in the type of carbonate produced by fish guts, which strongly affects their dissolution (120). In complex adaptive systems, in contrast, a different approach must be taken. Worm For some systems and activities, such as fisheries and sensible management practices, we seek to find ways to enhance resilience and robustness; for others, such as diseases and destructive patterns of overconsumption, resilience and robustness are impediments to achieving a sustainable future. JR Furthermore, mangroves, seagrasses, and salt marshes often form a spatially linked continuum of intertidal habitats with unvegetated mudflats and sandbars, habitats that may sequester and store large amounts of organic carbon (e.g., ref. For management, this means in part asking how the reward structure to individuals can be modified in ways to encourage behaviors that are in the common good. Ocean Observations: Essential for Good Stewardship. Downing The challenge of EBM is to think holistically about the various factors that modify the functioning of ecological systems and about how to manage those activities in order to sustain the provision of their services over the long term. RS EO Increasing stratification is expected to decrease oxygen content in the upper ocean, and changes consistent with this effect have been detected (77), with increased incidences of hypoxic and anoxic events and associated mass mortalities (6, 78). Restoring predators reduces the effects of overgrazing on primary productivity (116), thereby potentially benefitting carbon sequestration and storage (115, 118, 119). Simon Rosenberg 13); (ii) describing how existing MPAs perform under climate-related environmental stresses (e.g., ref. This edge may matter more than ever as the stress that climate change places on marine ecosystems and biodiversity continues to mount. EBM explicitly considers the interdependence of all ecosystem components, including species both human and nonhuman, and the environments in which they live. On a cautionary note, there is evidence that for some kelp forests such a beneficial effect may be reversed by warming. Dr. Lubchenco received a B.A. 105) and dampen explosive prey growth (e.g., ref. Ashkenas J Liu, T Dietz, SR Carpenter, C Folke, M Alberti, CL Redman, ... AMBIO: a journal of the human environment 36 (8), 639-649, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 12 (1), 405-437. Marine managers and scientists also have opened a healthy dialogue, pointing out that MPAs alone cannot meet global targets for marine biodiversity management and that sound fisheries management practices will also be required in the 70–90% of ocean that is likely to remain open to fishing in the medium term (20). These habitats have an added advantage over engineered coastal defenses in that they increase in elevation over time and may keep pace with predicted sea-level rise (49⇓–51). It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. JBC For ecosystem services to be sustained over time, the ecosystems providing them must be able to continue functioning in essential ways despite disruptions. Smith)Positions:Assistant Professor, 1975-1977, Harvard University. May 36 and 37). Large wetland habitats with dense and productive vegetation attenuate wave energy, stabilize shorelines, and accrete sediment more effectively than degraded or fragmented wetlands (e.g., ref. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112 (24), 7348-7355. U.R.S. Trawling and other mobile fishing gear alter biogeochemical cycles by resuspending sediments, releasing carbon that is otherwise buried (122), and shifting the composition of benthic communities, including reduced numbers of suspension feeders (123). In other words, they must be robust and resilient, concepts that have developed somewhat independently in diverse scientific communities to mean much the same thing: the capacity of systems to keep functioning even when disturbed. It is little surprise, then, that present-day societies tend to take many of these natural services for granted (Daily 1997, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005a, 2006a, 2006b, 2006c, 2006d, 2006e), even while the support systems that provide the services are being severely degraded (Vitousek et al.
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