Ecclesiastically, Clement is remembered for orders protecting Jews from the Inquisition, approving the Capuchin Franciscan Order, and securing the island of Malta for the Knights of Malta. From this point on, Clement VII could do nothing but follow the fate of the French party to the end. He planned an impressive group of monuments to members of his family for the New Sacristy (Sagrestia Nuova) in San Lorenzo, Florence, and in 1520 Michelangelo began the designs, which were to rank among the finest of his sculptures. The Pope responded to the marriage by excommunicating both Henry and Cranmer from the Catholic Church. Scholars today believe that he was likely the pope’s son. Nach anfänglicher Neutralität in diesem Konflikt näherte sich Clemens in den folgenden Jahren der Seite Karls V. an. Many people close to Henry VIII wished simply to ignore the Pope; but in October 1530 a meeting of clergy and lawyers advised that the English Parliament could not empower the Archbishop of Canterbury to act against the Pope's prohibition. Nor do they account for the effects on his illness of two sea voyages within two months. Seit 1521 führte der spanische König und römisch-deutsche Kaiser Karl V. mit Franz I. von Frankreich Krieg um die Herrschaft in Oberitalien. bemüht, die weltliche Macht des Papsttums und der Familie Medici zu erhöhen. Political survival perforce eclipsed ecclesiastical reform as a short-term goal, and the costs of war necessitated the curtailment of expenditure on culture. Anne gave birth to a daughter, Princess Elizabeth, three months after her public coronation as Queen in Westminster Abbey. Subsequently the Pope followed a policy of subservience to the Emperor, endeavouring on the one hand to induce him to act with severity against the Lutherans in Germany, and on the other to avoid his demands for a general council. [contradictory] From this point on, Clement VII could do nothing but follow the fate of the French party to the end. As cardinal he commissioned Raphael to paint the huge altarpiece the “Transfiguration” for his cathedral at Narbonne, France. Pope Clement VII came into a world in which all of Europe was united in allegiance to the overwhelming authority of the pope — Christ’s steward on earth. und Kaiser Karl V. zustande kam. *Paul III succeeded Clement VII as the next pope. He was born in Florence one month after his father had been assassinated after the Pazzi Conspiracy. At the same time, Venice took advantage of his situation to capture Cervia and Ravenna while Sigismondo Malatesta returned in Rimini. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Aluminum was once more valuable than gold. Giulio’s parents were not formally married, however, a loophole in canon law allowed for his parents to be betrothed which allowed Giulio to be considered legitimate. (Only the last could be occupied in fact.) In 1533, Johann Widmanstetter (or John Widmanstad), a secretary of Clement's, explained the Copernican system to him and two cardinals. In 1532, Clement VII took possession of Ancona, which definitively lost its freedom and became part of the Papal States, ending hundreds of years when the Republic of Ancona was an important maritime power. He was the 220th Pope from 1523 to 1534. A weak, vacillating figure in the political struggles between King Francis I of France and the Holy Roman emperor Charles V for the domination of Europe, Clement shifted his support from one to the other while attempting to maintain control of Italy. In his bull "Intra Arcana" he advocated a militaristic means of evangelizing "by force and arms, if needful" which Stogre (1992) contrasts with the more peaceful admonitions of his successor Paul III in his bull "Sublimus Dei". His intelligence was of a high order, though his diplomacy was feeble and irresolute. Known as Cardinal Medici during his later years, he supported the election of Adrian VI. Clemens VII. He is known for his connection to Michelangelo and for the political struggles that he faced. In 1528 France invaded Italy, and Clement delegated Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio as co-legate with Cardinal Wolsey to try Henry’s case in England, but on May 31, 1529, Catherine denied their jurisdiction and appealed to Rome to sustain a validation of her marriage.  Catherine had been his brother's widow, but the marriage had been childless, so the marriage was not against Old Testament law, which forbids such unions only if the brother had children. He was born in Florence one month after his father's death. *During his reign as pope, Clement VII commissioned Michelangelo to paint “The Last Judgment,” a painting that is still on display in the Sistine Chapel. That the precious liberta d’Italia (freedom from outside domination) should have been lost irrevocably seems more an inevitability than a product of Clement’s particular failings. Februar 1515), Apostolischer Administrator des Bistums Albenga (1517–1518), Apostolischer Administrator des Bistums Embrun (1518–1518), Apostolischer Administrator des Bistums Ascoli Piceno (1518–1518), Apostolischer Administrator des Bistums Worcester (1521–1522). His father, who was also his uncle, was his mother's cousin. Francis opposed such a council, and Clement was continually prevented from action on the urgent need for reform. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Clement VII issued an invective against Charles V, who in reply defined him a "wolf" instead of a "shepherd", menacing the summoning of a council about the Lutheran question. Certainly his predecessors since the end of the Schism had experienced their share of opposition, but did any have to fight on so many fronts as Clement, and against such overwhelming odds? This was in contradiction to Catholic canon law, which required priests to be clean-shaven but had as precedent the beard Pope Julius II wore for nine months in 1511–12 as a sign of mourning for the papal city of Bologna. Neuere Studien berichten aber von einer legitimen Eheschließung.. In the words of his biographer Emmanuel Rodocanachi, "In accordance with the custom of those times, people attributed his death to poison. Having previously served as the Archbishop of Florence, he took charge of the papacy during a very delicate situation, right after the end of the Italian Renaissance. The woman appears in several Renaissance paintings. Thus in 1521 Medici negotiated an alliance against France with Emperor Charles V, thereby gaining an ally to combat Lutheranism, then growing in the Emperor's German territories. ", On the death of Pope Leo X in 1521, Adams writes there was a "ready inclination in all of the principal citizens [of Florence], and a universal desire among the people, to maintain the state in the hands of the Cardinal de’ Medici; and all this felicity arose from his good government, which since the death of the Duke Lorenzo, had been universally agreeable. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. 119-121). Cranmer was prepared to grant the annulment of the marriage to Catherine as Henry required. Clement VII, Pope Alternative names de' Medici, Giulio (birth name); de' Medici, Giulio di Giuliano (full name); Clemente VII, papa (Italian); Clemens VII, Papa (Latin) Short description Pope: Date of birth 26 May 1478 Place of birth Florence, Republic of Florence: Date of death 25 September 1534 Place of death Rome, Papal States: This page was last changed on 31 August 2017, at 10:02. Clement also feared the wrath of Catherine's nephew, Charles V, whose own troops were responsible for the episode earlier that year that included the sack of Rome. Während seines ganzen Pontifikats war Clemens VII. *His birth name was Giulio di Giuliano de’ Medici.  Catherine had been his late brother's wife, and it was therefore against Biblical teachings for Henry to have married her.. Giulio de’ Medici war ein vermutlich unehelich geborener Sohn von Giuliano di Piero de’ Medici aus Florenz, der zum Zeitpunkt der Geburt seines Sohnes bereits der Pazzi-Verschwörung zum Opfer gefallen war, und Fioretta Gorini. Giulio served the new pope as he had Leo X, and when Adrian died in 1523, Giulio was elected, taking the name Clement VII. , Giulio di Medici was born in Florence one month after his father's death.  These included prohibiting priests from carrying arms, frequenting taverns, and dancing provocatively – while urging them to attend weekly confession. Born Robert of Geneva in Chateau d’Annecy in 1342, Clement VII was the son of Count Amadeus III and Marie de Boulogne. *Clement VII was the second member of the Medici family to become a pope. His indecisiveness allowed the Protestant Reformation to grow and resulted in Henry VIII’s eventual split from Rome. Giulio de' Medici's life began under tragic circumstances. He is known for his connection to Michelangelo and for the political struggles that he faced. , Cardinal de' Medici’s other endeavors on behalf of Pope Leo X were similarly successful, such that "he had the credit of being the prime mover of papal policy throughout the whole of Leo’s pontificate. He left this life in 1534 with the Church broken by revolution, war, greed, and lust for power. Clement’s incapacitation complicated the English king Henry VIII’s request for an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. Upon his cousin's accession to the papacy, Giulio became his principal minister and confidant, especially in the maintenance of the Medici interest at Florence as archbishop of that city. The Reformation in Germany worsened when Charles released Clement without attempting to secure a guarantee that ecclesiastical reform would commence or that a general council would be convened to solve the problem raised by the Lutheran movement.  Initially, the cardinal's duties centered primarily on administering Church affairs in Florence and conducting international relations.  That autumn, he helped lead a victorious Imperial-Papal army over the French in Milan and Lombardy. This was a violation of Catholic canon law, which required priests to be clean-shaven; however, it had the precedent of the beard which Pope Julius II had worn for nine months in 1511–12 as a similar sign of mourning for the loss of the Papal city of Bologna. No records indicate his mother, but he spent much of his early life under the care of an architect who was also his godfather. The fact that Leo X had blithely ignored his cousin’s advice, on so many occasions, was widely seen as being responsible for the plight of the papacy—not the influence of Cardinal Giulio de’ Medici. Francis I of France's conquest of Milan in 1524, during his Italian campaign of 1524–1525, prompted the Pope to quit the Imperial–Spanish side and to ally himself with other Italian princes, including the Republic of Venice, and France in January 1525. starb am 25. Bio. Nevertheless, it was in his day that the disaster took place while these others, who were filled with all vices, lived and died in felicity—as the world sees it. She had not produced a male heir who survived into adulthood and Henry wanted a son to secure the Tudor dynasty. Karl V. in Bologna zum Kaiser. In: Catholic Encyclopedia, Band … Pope Clement VII was born on 26 th May 1478 as Giulio di Giuliano de’Medici. Pope Clement VII was the head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 November 1523 to 25 September 1534. Though canon law stated that popes must remain clean-shaven, Clement VII grew a long beard after the Sack of Rome to show his distress at the men who died during that battle.
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